Antibody Response after BNT162b2 Vaccination in Healthcare Workers Previously Exposed and Not Exposed to SARS-CoV-2

Salvaggio M, Fusina F, Albani F, Salvaggio M, Beschi R, Ferrari E, Costa A, Agnoletti L, Facchi E, Natalini G.
Antibody Response after BNT162b2 Vaccination in Healthcare Workers Previously Exposed and Not Exposed to SARS-CoV-2.
J Clin Med. 2021 Sep 17;10(18):4204. doi: 10.3390/jcm10184204. PMID: 34575315; PMCID: PMC8472660

Abstract

The Pfizer/BioNtech Comirnaty vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19) against SARS-CoV-2 is currently in use in Italy. Antibodies to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to administration are not routinely tested; therefore, two doses may be administered to asymptomatic previously exposed subjects. The aim of this study is to assess if any difference in antibody concentration between subjects exposed and not exposed to SARS-CoV-2 prior to BNT162b2 was present after the first dose and after the second dose of vaccine. Data were retrospectively collected from the clinical documentation of 337 healthcare workers who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing before and after BNT162b2. Total anti RBD (receptor-binding domain) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2's spike protein were measured before and 21 days after the first dose, and 12 days after the second dose of BNT162b2. Twenty-one days after the first dose, there was a statistically significant difference in antibody concentration between the two groups, which was also maintained twelve days after the second dose. In conclusion, antibody response after receiving BNT162b2 is greater in subjects who have been previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 than in subjects who have not been previously exposed to the virus, both after 21 days after the first dose and after 12 days from the second dose. Antibody levels, 21 days after the first dose, reached a titer considered positive by the test manufacturer in the majority of subjects who have been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Evaluating previous infection prior to vaccination in order to give the least effective number of doses should be considered.

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